What is an F-Stop?

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So what exactly is an f-stop? Well, to put it in the very simplest terms, it is the opening that lets light into your camera. And so the numbers on the f-stop relate to the size of the opening that is letting light into your camera. F-stops are measured by a scale, and this is known as the f-stop scale. If you are not familiar with a camera, the f-stop numbers can be very confusing as they do not seem to make any sense. The f-stops are actually a measurement of the diameter of the aperture. Logically, they should be expressed as a fraction and this number would tell you the diameter in millimeters as a fraction of the actual focal length of the lens. So if you had a zoom set at 40 mm with an aperture of F8, the diameter of the aperture opening is 5 mm (40 divided by 40).
Adding to this confusion, the numbers that correspond to different f-stops seem backwards, because an aperture of F8 is actually smaller than an aperture of F4. So, the larger the number the smaller the opening. And the smaller the number the larger the opening. And then you get into the fact that most f-stop numbers are not a full number. They are an f5.6, or an f19, or an f6.3, or an f1.4. If you are not familiar with f-stops and aperture openings none of this makes any sense. These numbers depict half stops and third stops, as well as full f-stops.
The typical range for f-stops on a camera, progressing from a wide setting to a small setting is f4, f5.6, f8, f11, and f16. Some lenses will have a wider range and may offer half stops and/or third stops. Another funny thing about f-stops, is if you halve the number of the f-stop, the aperture lets in a quarter amount of light, because it is it two stop decrease. If you are thinking about it logically, you would naturally assume that if you took and halved your f-stop that you would be letting in half the light. But that is not true because with each f-stop decrease you are halving the amount of light, therefore with two f-stops, you would only have one quarter of the light.
If you take your f-stop scale, and add your half stops, the scale is F4, F4.8, and F5.6. If you then do your third stop range. It would go F4, F4.5, F4.8 (for your half), F5 and F5.6.
The key thing to remember about f-stops is that it is a measure of the amount of light that is being let in through your lens. You can think of it as having a paper towel roll, and looking through the roll at the light. If you took a piece of tinfoil and put it over the end of the paper towel roll and poked a pinhole in it, you would have a high f-stop or small aperture opening. The bigger you made the hole, the smaller your f-stop number would become and the more light you would be letting in. Using your aperture control with your shutter control on your camera will give you the proper exposure. The best way to figure out what is happening with the different settings, is just to play with it. Especially if you have a digital camera, you can just delete whatever doesn’t turn out well.

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